5种药材在不同郁闭度油桐林下生长研究

发布时间:2019-08-29 来源: 感恩亲情 点击:


  摘要:在不同郁闭度油桐林分套种玉竹、黄精、石蒜、桔梗和麦冬,测定不同药材在不同郁闭度油桐林分地上部分鲜重增量和地下部分鲜重生长情况。结果表明:油桐林分郁闭度在07以上的可套种玉竹、黄精等耐阴性药材,郁闭度在05~07可套种石蒜和麦冬等偏中性药材,在郁闭度小于03~05的可套种桔梗等喜光性药材。
  关键词:油桐;郁闭度;套种;药材
  中图分类号:S794.3文献标识码:A文章编号:1004-3020(2016)05-0009-03Effect of Different Canopy Degree on the Growth of Five kinds
  of Herbs Interplanted in Vernicia fordii ForestDu Yangwen(1,2,3,4)Zeng Xiangfu(1,2,3,4)Deng Xianzhen(1,2,3,4)Li Shuanglong(5)
  (1.Hubei Academy of ForestryWuhan430075; 2.Hubei Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Woody
  OilBearing ForestWuhan430075;3.Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Exploiting Characteristic Resources
  in Dabie MountainsHuanggang438000;4.Hubei Key Laboratory of NonTimber Forest Germplasm Improvement and Resources
  Comprehensive UtilizationWuhan430075;5.Enshi Autonomous Prefecture Forestry Research InstituteEnshi445000)
  Abstract: Polygonatum sibiricum,Platycodon sp., Ophiopogonis sp., Lyeoris radiate and Polygonatum odoratum were interplanted in the Vernicia fordii forest with different canopy degree. The growth amount of the fresh weight of the overground part and the growth rate of the fresh weight of the underground part of different herbs were surveyed. The results showed that P. odoratum and P. sibiricum which were shadetolerant were suitable for being interplanted in the V. fordii forest with the canopy degree of 0.7 ,L. radiate and Ophiopogonis sp. which were middle shadetolerant were suitable for bgeing interplanted in the V. fordii forest with the canopy degree from 0.5 to 0.7,P. sp. which were lightdemanding was suitable for being interrelated in V. fordii forest with the canopy degree from 0.3 to 0.5.
  Key words:Vernicia fordii;canopy degree;interplanted;herbs
  油桐Vernicia fordii是中国特有的木本油料树种,主要分布在长江流域及其以南地区,以四川、湖南、湖北和贵州较为集中。油桐是世界上最优质的干性油,是重要的工业用油,是我国重要的油料出口物质之一\[4\]。我国桐油品质优良,出口产量和质量均居世界第一[5]。
  近年来,林下经济逐渐成为山区农民致富增收的重要途径,对于促进和发展地方经济具有十分重要的现实意义。林下间作药材可实现野生、半野生栽培,有利于提高药材品质、增强林地水土保持能力和增加生物多样性等多种优势[6],也符合当前生态建设需要和森林资源经营管护的需要[7]。林药间作对药材种类的选择至关重要,做到因地制宜、因林制宜。药材的药效成分是在特定的气候环境中积累形成的。如黄精、天麻等只有阴蔽、凉爽、多湿的环境才能生长良好,药效成份才能形成。本文针对不同药材种类生长所需环境的不同,开展不同郁闭度油桐林间种适宜药材种类筛选试验研究,旨在为油桐林下间种药材选择提供理论依据及日本成人电影支撑。
  1材料与方法
  1.1试验地概况
  试验地位于湖北省恩施州来凤县百福司镇(东经109°09′~109°27′,北纬29°04′~29°07′),位于湖北省恩施州西边陲,地处鄂、湘、渝三省(市)交界之地,全镇平均海拔389 m,最高海拔1 127 m,最低海拔33990 m。土壤主要为红壤、黄壤和沙壤。亚热带大陆性季风湿润型山地气候,年日照时数1 260 h,无霜期269 d ,年平均降雨量1 494 mm,年平均气温168 ~185 ℃ ,年极端最低气温-7~15 ℃,极端最高温389 ℃,≥10 ℃积温为5 310~3 310 ℃,无霜期293~207 d,相对湿度81%。

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