河南宝丰烟区生态因素与烟叶质量特点

发布时间:2019-08-24 来源: 短文摘抄 点击:


  摘要分析河南宝丰烟区的植烟基本条件、气候因素、土壤养分状况以及所产烟叶的质量特点。结果表明:宝丰烟区无霜期为204~248 d,>10 ℃积温为4 681.3~5 247.5 ℃,日平均气温≥20 ℃的适宜气温持续时间为122~152 d;大田期光照充足,降水基本能够满足烤烟生长需要。植烟土壤有机质和速效氮含量较高,速效磷和速效钾含量适中,土壤含氯量低,为烤烟适宜或最适宜生长类型区。烟叶各化学成分含量适宜,组成比例协调,但协调性与津巴布韦烟叶相比尚有差距。
  关键词烟叶质量;气候因素;土壤因素;宝丰烟区
  中图分类号S572文献标识码A文章编号0517-6611(2014)28-09720-02
  Analysis of Ecological Factors and Quality of Fluecured Tobacco Leaves in Baofeng Tobaccogrowing Area of Henan Province
  SONG Ruifang1, WANG Guozheng1, LI Shupo1, XU Guanghui2* et al
  (1. Baofeng Branch of Pingdingshan Tobacco Company of Henan Province, Baofeng, Henan 467400; 2. Pingding Branch of Henan Tobacco Company, Pingdingshan, Henan 467000)
  AbstractThe basic conditions, climatic factors, soil nutrients and quality of fluecured tobacco leaves in Baofeng tobaccogrowing area were analyzed.The number of frostfree period was 204-248 days, the accumulated temperature above 10℃ was 4 681.3-5 247.5 ℃, the number of days with an average daily temperature above 20 ℃ was about 122-152 d in Baofeng tobaccogrowing areas where there was sufficient sunlight and plentiful rainfall satisfying the climate requirements necessary for the growth and development of high quality fluecured tobacco. The characteristics of soil nutrient contents in tobacco fields were analyzed, the content of organic substance and available nitrogen were high, the contents of available phosphorus and potassium were suitable and the content of chorine was low. Tobacco leaves of Baofeng had reasonable chemical component and chemical compositions were apt. However, the coordination of the chemical composition in tobacco leaves was inferior to the high quality Zimbabwe tobacco.
  Key wordsTobacco leaves quality; Climatic factor; Soil factor; Baofeng tobaccogrowing area
  宝丰县地处33°47′~34°02′ N、112°43′~113°18′ E,位于河南省中西部外方山东麓,北依汝河,南邻沙河,属暖温带大陆性气候,无霜期长,光热资源丰富,土壤类型属南方黄红土壤向北方的褐土过渡地带,适宜植烟的土壤面积较大,是豫中优质浓香型烤烟产区之一。影响烟叶质量形成的因素除品种和栽培调制日本成人电影外,生态因素是烟叶品质特点和風格特色形成的基础条件,其中气候因素是造就优质烟叶特点的主要生态学外因[1-3]。除孔银亮等分析了平顶山烟区农业气候特点、植烟土壤养分含量、烤烟化学质量及吸食质量外[4-7],还未见单独对宝丰烟区气候、土壤因素及对其烟叶外观进行综合分析的研究。为此,笔者从直接影响烤烟生长发育和产质量表现的气候因素及土壤养分含量入手,对该地区的烟叶质量特点进行了分析,旨在为宝丰烟区发挥生态优势生产优质烤烟及合理进行日本成人电影区划提供理论依据。
  1材料与方法
  1.1数据调查和样品采集
  1.1.1气象数据。2001~2010年气象资料由河南省宝丰县气象局提供。
  1.1.2土壤样品。2009~2010年,在宝丰烟区11个植烟乡镇采集土壤样品64个。土壤采集在烟草尚未施用底肥和移栽之前进行,采样时注意避开雨季。采样时取0~20 cm 耕作层土样,在同一采样单元内每8~10个点的土样构成1个混合样,用四分法弃去多余部分,保留0.5 kg 在室内经风干、磨碎、过筛等前处理制成分析样。
  1.1.3烤后烟样品。2012年采集烤后烟样品68个,品种为中烟100,样品包括X2F、C3F、B2F 3个等级,其中X2F样品16个,C3F样品42个,B2F样品10个,样品等级评定按GB2635-92烤烟标准进行,等级合格率达85%以上。每个样品取样2.0 kg用于常规化学成分分析。

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